Mahatma Gandhi Ji – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Many years ago, during the British rule in India, a boy was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat. Parents, Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai were very happy and delighted with the birth of their fourth child.
This child, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was never thought of, becoming the One, Who Would Stand for the sake of the people of India, for the sake of Freedom and for changing the world permanently.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, better known as Mahatma Gandhi, was a great political pioneer of Indian independence. He was a key figure in India’s Independence Struggle who always adhered to his satyagraha and peace standards.
These standards of Mahatma Gandhi have inspired people everywhere for social awareness and freedom movement. Subhash Chandra Bose addressed him as ‘Father of the Nation’ in a 1944 news release from Rangoon Radio.
Mahatma Gandhi was an inspiration for the entire human race. He always ensured peace and truth in every situation and requests every person to follow the path of truth. He was to pursue his life with discretion.
He always wore Indian dhoti and cotton shawls. He was an incredible person who has consistently followed a vegetarian diet has been fasting for a long time for self-purification.
Mahatma Gandhi Ji – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
Major life events:
Many details and Information about Mahatma Gandhi’s School Life was Shared by a longtime principal of Rajkot High School in a book that was published on Gandhiji’s Life. In this, Gandhi reveals much about school life. In the book, it is learned that at the age of 10, Gandhi had changed many schools.
There are various explanations behind changing the school. Mohandas has little presence in the classroom. He was not a very good student in his childhood days.
The upbringing of truth began from infancy. Once, he saw a bioscope display on the streets. It was about the story of “Raja Harishchandra Ji”. After watching the story, Gandhi was surprised and realized the importance of the role of truth in life.
He did his middle school education in Porbandar and Rajkot High School. Mohandas was an average student at the educational level.
He passed Matriculation Examination from Ahmedabad in 1887. Mohandas then enrolled at Shamaldas College in Bhavnagar but was dealing with various health issues, so he left the college and returned to Porbandar.
In 1883, at the age of 13 and a half, he married 14-year-old Kasturba. When Mohandas was 15, his first child was born, who lived only for a few days.
His father, Karamchand Gandhi, also died the same year (1885). Later Mohandas and Kasturba had four children – Harilal Gandhi (1888), Manilal Gandhi (1892), Ramdas Gandhi (1897) and Devdas Gandhi (1900).
Mahatma Gandhi Ji – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
Although Gandhi was an average student in his early academic years, he was the most educated member of his family.
A family friend, “Mawji Dave” once advised, to Gandhi’s that If Mohandas manages to become a lawyer from London, he could easily take the Diwan title.
His mother Putlibai and other family members initially opposed the idea of going abroad for education, however, when Gandhiji assured his family that everything would be fine, Everyone eventually agreed.
In 1888, Mohandas traveled to England to attend his college where he studied law and became a lawyer in London. In return for his mother’s assurance, he invested his energy in London.
While studying in London, Gandhiji had a hard time finding vegetarian food, which, at times, caused him to starve in his early days. Gradually, Gandhi found Restaurants offering vegetarian meals. Later, he also became a member of the Vegetarian Society. Some members of this society were members of the Theosophical Society Who suggested Gandhiji, to refer to the “Gita”.
In June 1891, Gandhi returned to India and learned of his mother’s death. He started working as a lawyer in Bombay but didn’t gain any major success. After this, he went to Rajkot, where he began to apply for cases for the poor, but after a while, he was forced to quit that job as well.
Finally, in 1893, he accepted a one-year contract for advocacy work for an Indian firm in South Africa. Gandhi arrived in South Africa at the age of 24. He went there as a legal counsel to some Indian businessmen in Pretoria.
He spent 21 years of his life in South Africa, where his political thinking and leadership skills developed. He faced racism in South Africa. Once, despite bearing a valid first-class coach ticket, he was thrown out of the train for refusing to enter a third-class compartment. These events marked a turning point in his life and helped raise awareness of current social and political injustices.
In view of the injustices being done to Indians in South Africa, questions have arisen in Gandhi’s mind about the respect of Indians and their own identity under the British Empire.
In South Africa, Gandhiji inspired Indians to fight for their political and social rights. He raised the issue of Indian citizenship in the South African government and actively prompted British authorities to recruit Indians in the 1906 Zulu War.
Gandhiji advocated supporting Indians to legitimize their citizenship claims. In 1914, Gandhiji, Came Back to India from South Africa. By this time Gandhi had become a nationalist leader and convener.
Mahatma Gandhi Ji – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
He came to India at the behest of the right-wing Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and Gandhi’s views in the early days greatly influenced Gokhale’s views. Initially, Gandhi visited various parts of the country and tried to understand political, economic and social issues. The Champaran in Bihar and the Kheda Movements in Gujarat brought Gandhi the first political victory in India.
British zamindars in Champaran forced farmers to cultivate indigo instead of food crops and would, buy crops at cheaper prices, which made the situation worse for farmers. For this reason, they were surrounded by extreme poverty. After the devastating drought, the British government imposed regressive taxes and the burdens increased day by day.
Overall the situation was very frustrating. Gandhiji led a protest and strike against the landlord’s, post which, the government, accepted the demands of the poor and peasants.
In 1918, Kheda suffered floods and droughts in Gujarat, which changed the condition of farmers and the poor and the people began demanding a tax waiver.
In Kheda, under the guidance of Gandhiji, Sardar Patel discussed the issue with the British for the peasants. Thus, after Champaran and Kheda, Gandhi’s fame spread throughout the country and he rose to prominence as an important leader in the independence movement.
Gandhiji had the opportunity to increase his popularity in the Congress and the Muslims through the Khilafat movement. The Khilafat is a worldwide movement, which is being opposed by Muslims around the world for the diminishing of Khilafat’s supremacy. The Ottoman Empire was disbanded after losing the First World War, and the Muslims were concerned about the safety of their religion and religious sites.
Khilafat was led by the All-India Muslim Conference. Gradually Gandhi became its chief spokesman. Subsequently, Gandhi became not only a Congress’s Leader but also the country’s only leader who had an impact on all classes of people. Gandhiji believed that British rule in India was possible only with the cooperation of the Indians and, freedom is possible if we all cooperate against the British.
The growing popularity of Gandhi made him the biggest leader of Congress and he was now, in a position to use weapons of non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful retaliation against the British. In the meantime, the Jallianwala Bagh shocking incident, gave the country a huge trauma, causing flames of anger and violence among the people.
Gandhiji called for a homegrown policy of boycotting foreign goods, especially English goods. He said that all Indians should make our own personalized khadi instead of using clothes made by the British. Men and women were asked to spin yarn on a regular basis. In addition, Mahatma Gandhi demanded the boycott of UK academia and courts, quit government jobs and restore India’s dignity and respect.
The non-cooperation movement was an enormous success, leading to excitement and participation in all sections of society, but in February 1922, it ended with the Chauri-Chaura scandal. After this violent incident, Gandhiji withdrew the non-cooperation movement.
Mahatma Gandhi Ji – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
He was arrested and tried for treason, in which he was sentenced to six years in prison. He was released in February 1924 due to poor health. Gandhiji stayed away from active politics until 1928. During this time he continued to undermine the system between the Swaraj Party and the Congress and fought against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance, and poverty.
At the same time, the British government created a new Legal Reform Commission for India under the leadership of Sir John Simon, but none of its members were Indians, leading to the expulsion of Indian political parties. Subsequently, at the Calcutta Conference of December 1928, Gandhiji asked the British government to give power to the Indian Empire, otherwise, they would face a non-cooperative movement for the independence of the country.
With no response from the British government, the Indian flag was hoisted in Lahore on 31 December 1929 and the Congress celebrated 26 January 1930 as India’s Independence Day. Subsequently, Gandhiji initiated the Salt Satyagraha in protest of the government’s tax on salt, traveling from Ahmedabad to Dandi in Gujarat from March 12 to April 6, covering 388 kilometers.
The purpose of this trip was to make salt for itself. Thousands of Indians participated in the voyage and succeeded in overthrowing the English government. During this time the government arrested more than 60 thousand people and sent them to jail. Subsequently, the government representing Lord Irvine decided to contact Gandhiji, resulting in the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in March 1931.
Under the Gandhi-Irwin agreement, the British government agreed to release all political prisoners. As a result of this agreement, Gandhi attended the Round Table Conference in London as the sole representative of the Congress. After that Gandhi was arrested again and the government tried to suppress the nationalist movement.
Gandhi resigned from the Congress in 1934. Instead of political activity, He focused his attention on creating a ‘nation from the lowest level’ through ‘constructive programs’. He began work on educating rural India, sustaining the movement against untouchability, promoting spinning, weaving and other cottage industries and creating an education system that suited the needs of the people.
While, Gandhiji, was in jail, with the continuous efforts of Dalit leader, BR Ambedkar, the British government has approved special elections for the untouchables under the new constitution. Gandhiji, who is in the Yerwada jail, took a six-day fast in September 1932 and urged the government to adopt a uniform system.
This was the beginning of Gandhi’s campaign to improve the lives of the untouchables. On May 8, 1933, Gandhiji undertook a 21-day fast for self-purification and launched a one-year campaign to advance the Harijan movement. Dalit leaders like Ambedkar were not happy with the movement and condemned Gandhi for using the word ‘Harijan’ for Dalits.
At the outset of World War II, Gandhi was in favor of giving the British ‘non-violent moral support’, but many congress leaders were unhappy that the government had thrown the country into war without consulting public representatives.
India was going to war to fight for the democratic forces. As the war progressed, Gandhi and Congress intensified the demand for the ‘Quit India’ movement.
‘Quit India’ became the most powerful movement in the struggle for independence, leading to widespread violence and arrest. Thousands of freedom fighters were killed or wounded in the fighting and thousands were arrested. Gandhiji made it clear that he would not support the British war effort unless it gave India its immediate independence.
He said the movement would not stop despite personal violence. He believed, that government anarchy, which is prevalent in the country, is more dangerous than real anarchy. Gandhiji urged all Congress and Indians to follow the discipline of, “do or die” (do or die) with non-violence.
As everyone would have already known or assumed, the British government arrested Gandhiji and all members of the Congress Working Committee in Mumbai on 9 August 1942 and took Gandhiji to the Aga Khan Palace in Pune, where he was held hostage for two years. Meanwhile, his wife Kasturba Gandhi died on 22 February 1944 and shortly thereafter Gandhiji also got malaria. Gandhiji was released on 6 May 1944 for necessary treatment.
Despite the partial victory, the Quit India Movement unified India, and by the end of World War II, the British government had made clear that the Indians would soon be given overpower. Gandhiji ended the Quit India Movement and the government released about 1 lakh, political prisoners.
As mentioned earlier, by the end of World War II, the British government had signaled the liberation of the country. Along with the movement for the independence of India, the demand for a ‘separate Muslim majority country’ (Pakistan) under the leadership of Jinnah intensified and in the 40s, these forces actually changed the demand for a separate country ‘Pakistan’. Not Gandhiji.
They wanted to divide the country and the British have divided the country into two pieces – India and Pakistan.
Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation, was assassinated at the Birla House in Delhi, On January 30, 1948, at 17:30. While Gandhiji was about to address the prayer session, his killer Nathuram Godse shot 3 bullets in his chest. ‘Hey Ram’ is believed to be the last word that came out of his mouth. Nathuram Godse and his associates were sentenced to death in 1949.